History of water purification
Though before the industrial revolution water in rivers, lakes and springs was much cleaner, people still tried to clear it. The history of water purification goes back centuries.
Our work today is to create a unique technology for removal an unwanted impurity – heavywater isotopologues. Our technology allows receiving actually pure Н2О by removing or significantly reducing the proportion of heavy water in drinking water. Now we have a real opportunity to produce drinking water in which the amount of heavy water is significantly reduced, on an industrial scale.
For the last 300 000 years the contamination of water with deuterium changed with someregularity. Now the concentration of deuterium in water gradually decreases, and after some 30 thousand years natural water will be much lighter and less harmful. But for those who do not want to wait, we suggest to drink the light water.
Strekalova T., Evans M., Chernopiatko A. et al. Deuterium content of water increases depression susceptibility: The potential role of a serotonin-related mechanism. Behav. Brain Res. Epub 2014
Commissioning of the first certified production of light water in Russia
Within Almaz-Timantti scientific and production association first-ever production of light water with a full cycle of its purification from heavy water fractions was created.
The first publication of the Hungarian microbiologist G.Somlyai
Gábor Somlyai et al. Naturally occuring deuterium is essential for the normal growth rate of cells. (1993) FEBS Letters,317,1,2,1-4
Reverse osmosis is used for industrial water purification since the early 60s. Reverse osmosis systems are designed for desalination of sea water.
The first studies of light water
Pioneer researches of deuterium depleted water performed by Tomsk scientists (B.Rodimov, I.Toroptsev et al.). For the first time was discovered a powerful stimulating effect of water obtained from the relic Yakut ice and pure Siberian snow.
Toroptsev I. et al. Biological role of heavy water in living organisms. Questions of radiobiology and hematology, publishing house of Tomsk University, 1966
Discovery of heavy water
Heavy water was discovered for the first time in natural water by H.Urey in 1932. In 1933 Gilbert Lewis managed to get heavy water as a result of prolonged electrolysis of ordinary water.
The method of water disinfection with ultraviolet light has been known since 1910, when in France and Germany the first stations for processing of artesian water were built.
In 1906 in the French city of Nice the station with ozonic technology of water treatment began to function. The station was called «Bon voyage».
In 1903 was invented water softening with use of ion-exchange resins for water desalination. The principle of operation is based on these resins, the ion exchange process. Ion exchange is widely used for softening hard water. The principle of action of these resins is based on ion exchange. Ion exchange is widely used for softening of hard water.
Chlorination of tap water
For disinfection of tap drinking water chlorine was used for the first time in New York in 1895. In Russia the first chlorination was carried out in 1910 on a water supply system in Kronstadt.
The first municipal filters
In 1854 it was discovered that the cholera epidemic spreads through the water. British scientist John Snow found out that the water pump – a pollutant of sewage – had caused the outbreak. He used chlorine for water treatment, and the epidemic was stopped. After this discovery, the government began the installation of municipal water filters (sand filters and chlorination). It was the first state regulation of public waters.
On the English caricature of the XIX century cholera floats along the muddy Thames among the impurities and dead rats. "Column of Death" - a response of the caricaturist to John Snow’s hypothesis about the causes of the cholera epidemic associated with drinking water.
In 1827 the Englishman James Simpson invented a sand filter for drinking water. In 1829 were constructed the first English filters for the London water supply system, which could purify water from the Thames.
The first wastewater treatment plant
In Scotland, Paisley, was built the first wastewater treatment plant, designed by Robert Thom.
The first filters
Prototypes of modern filters. Their operating principle was close to the natural wastewater treatment processes and consisted in passing of water through a layer of various substances: crushed stone, sand and charcoal.
The invention of microscope in the Netherlands. Zacharias and Hans Jansen were one of the inventors. The real breakthrough in water treatment was the invention of the microscope by Antoni van Leeuwenhoek in the Netherlands. In 1673 van Leeuwenhoek for the first time observed microorganisms in water.
The first water supply systems
The problem of drinking water is closely related to the problem of delivery of water in a person's residence. Various hydrostatic pressure systems were created B.C. in Egypt, ancient Rome, Jerusalem. Purification of water was discovered at the same time, when the first water supply system were invented, - in ancient Rome.
The great Greek philosopher Aristotle was the first man who wrote about water desalination: “Through evaporation salty water transforms into fresh water”. Ancient historian Pliny the Elder described the ancient method of desalination: the sheepskins which were hung out overboard for the night absorbed moisture, and in the morning this moisture could be wrung out, thus obtaining fresh water. In medieval Europe the first descriptions of experiments on seawater desalination in the simple alembic were found in the works of Leonardo da Vinci.
Hippocrates recognized the healing power of water
The famous Greek physician Hippocrates laid the basis for scientific concepts of drinking water. As part of his humoral theory Hippocrates recognized the healing power of water. He made his own experiments in the field of water purification.
Hippocrates invented the practical sifting of water and the first filter bag, which was called «H...
It was a sacking through which water after boiling was passed. The main objective of the bag was to trap sediment, which caused a bad taste or odor.
Egyptians discovered the principle of coagulation. They used the chemical alum for regulation of suspended particles.
Egyptians give us the evidence of existence of the ancient device for water distilling. Greek philosopher Zosimus found among the ancient hieroglyphs on the walls of the temple in Memphis a drawing of distillation apparatus.
Ancient people knew that water can be purified by passing it through sand and gravel. The first ever water filter was invented in Egypt. It was a piece of linen cloth, folded in several layers, through which the water was filtered.
As soon as people learned to make fire and invented dishes, they began to purify water in the simplest way - by boiling. The doctors of ancient Egypt extensively used water boiling. The sick consumed exclusively boiled water.